Grants of Arms
Who may apply for a Grant of armorial bearings?
All Canadian citizens or corporate bodies (municipalities, societies, associations, institutions, etc.) may petition to receive a grant of armorial bearings.
What are the different types of armorial bearings?
Three categories of armorial bearings can be requested: coats of arms, flags and badges. A coat of arms is centred on a shield and may be displayed with a helmet, mantling, a crest and a motto (see Annex 1). A grant of supporters is limited to corporate bodies and to some individuals in specific categories.
What is the meaning of a Grant of Arms?
Grants of armorial bearings are honours from the Canadian Crown. They provide recognition for Canadian individuals and corporate bodies and the contributions they make both in Canada and elsewhere.
How does one apply for Arms?
Canadian citizens or corporate bodies desiring to be granted armorial bearings by lawful authority must send to the Chief Herald of Canada a letter stating the wish "to receive armorial bearings from the Canadian Crown under the powers exercised by the Governor General." Grants of armorial bearings, as an honour, recognize the contribution made to the community by the petitioner (either individual or corporate). The background information is therefore an important tool for the Chief Herald of Canada to assess the eligibility of the request.
What background information should individuals forward?
Individuals should forward: (1) proof of Canadian citizenship; (2) a current biographical sketch that includes educational and employment background, as well as details of voluntary and community service. They will also be asked to complete a personal information form protected under the Privacy Act, and may be asked for names of persons to be contacted as confidential references.
What background information should corporate bodies forward?
Corporate bodies should forward: (1) a brief history and the details of their incorporation in Canada; (2) a current annual report and financial statement; (3) a copy of the resolution from their governing body requesting the grant.
What are the steps in the grant procedure?
On the recommendation of the Chief Herald of Canada, the Herald Chancellor (the Secretary to the Governor General) or the Deputy Herald Chancellor (the Deputy Secretary, Chancellery) signs a warrant authorizing a grant of armorial bearings to be made. An invoice for processing fees is then sent to the petitioner. Once the processing fees have been paid, the herald, a specialist in the field of symbolism, begins work with the petitioner to determine the elements of a possible design, which must follow the rules of heraldry. Occasionally, the Chief Herald of Canada assigns one of the Authority's heraldic consultants to work on the first stage of the grant process, following the same procedures mentioned above. After the written description of the armorial bearings has been approved by the Chief Herald of Canada, it is sent to the petitioner for acceptance.
After the written description has been approved, a contract is signed between the petitioner and one of the Authority's artists, who then prepares preliminary artwork. This illustrates the symbols, proportions and colours of the armorial bearings. This preliminary design is reviewed by Fraser Herald, the Authority's principal artist, approved by the Chief Herald of Canada, and sent to the petitioner for approval. The third stage involves the preparation of the grant document. The petitioner decides what format of letters patent will be produced. The letters patent are bilingual and the petitioner indicates which official language (English or French) is to be displayed on the left side. There are separate contracts for the final artwork and for the calligraphy of the document.
Called letters patent, this official document includes the final artistic illustration of the armorial bearings accompanied by a legal text. It is signed by the appropriate officials, and the seal of the Canadian Heraldic Authority is applied to it. The grant is entered in the Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada, and the official notice of the grant is published in Part I of the Canada Gazette under the title ‘Government House.’ It is also possible to have the design published in the Trade Marks Journal through the Authority's office procedures, upon payment of the fee required by the Registrar of Trade-marks.
How long does it take?
The average time required to complete a grant is 12 to 14 months after the warrant has been signed. The process can last longer if there are protracted discussions or if the volume of petitions received exceeds available staff resources. It is important to remember that grants of armorial bearings are made by the Crown to be valid forever. As a result, a sufficient amount of time is required to complete each grant.
How much does it cost?
The Government of Canada requires that the petitioner cover all direct costs related to the grant of armorial bearings. These costs are in two parts: (a) a fixed processing fee; (b) variable costs of artwork, research and letters patent preparation.
(a) The processing fee for all petitioners is fixed at $435 (plus HST) by Ministerial Order. An invoice for this fee is sent at the time the warrant authorizing the grant is signed. Please note that cheques forwarded before the invoice is sent will be returned. In most cases, the processing fee is sufficient to cover the cost of the research required for the grant. In cases requiring additional research, the petitioner will receive an estimate and will pay a supplementary fee to the researcher.
(b) The cost of one preliminary design ranges from $325 to $1,200 depending on the complexity of the design and the number of components. The cost increases if the petitioner wishes to make changes that require the creation of revised artwork. The cost of the letters patent depends on the option chosen by the petitioner, the complexity of the design, the number of components in the grant, and the inclusion of additional decoration. Two options are available for the letters patent.
In summary, the minimum cost of a grant of a coat of arms (shield, crest, helmet, mantling, and motto) is likely to be around $2,400, including the processing fee, one preliminary design and the letters patent (OPTION II). The choice of OPTION I, the need for additional preliminary artwork, or the inclusion of a flag, badge, shields for children, or decorative elements will result in additional costs. All artwork costs are paid by the petitioner directly to the Authority's artist assigned to the file. The maximum cost of the artwork is established before each stage of the process, and the petitioner indicates agreement by signing contracts. Artwork is forwarded to the petitioner by the Authority, together with the artist's invoice, payable within 30 days of receipt.
What are Option I and Option II documents?
Option I - one sheet
- 56 cm (22 in) x 76 cm (30 in)
- All emblems are hand-painted, including the headings
- Granting text inscribed by a calligrapher
- Cost: $3,335 plus tax for this example (shield, crest, helm, mantling, motto, flag, badge and calligraphy)
- The number of emblems will determine the cost
Option II - multiple sheets
- 36 cm (14 in) x 28 cm (11 in) each sheet
- Sheet 1: headings and text produced by computer
- Sheet 2: coat of arms only (hand-painted), with identifying text inscribed by a calligrapher
- Sheet 3: flag, badge and/or cadet shield (hand-painted), with identifying text repeated, in calligraphy
- Cost: $2,000 plus tax for this example (shield, crest, helm, mantling, motto, flag, badge and calligraphy)
- The number of emblems will determine the cost
Are there any other considerations to note?
The proposed armorial bearings must satisfy both the petitioner and the Chief Herald of Canada, who is responsible for following acceptable heraldic practice and for maintaining high aesthetic standards. To do this, the heralds aim to create meaningful and powerful designs using a limited number of symbols and colours, often in dramatic contrast. By determining what elements are most essential for inclusion and by taking advantage of the Authority's expertise, a petitioner can ensure the creation of a beautiful and lasting design.
The Sovereign of Canada, on the recommendation of the Governor General, must personally approve each use of the Royal Crown in Canadian armorial bearings.